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  1. Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic diseas...

    Authors: Jay R Radke, Michael S Behnke, Aaron J Mackey, Josh B Radke, David S Roos and Michael W White
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:26
  2. Myelination requires precise control of oligodendrocyte morphology and myelin generation at each of the axons contacted by an individual cell. This control must involve the integration of extracellular cues, s...

    Authors: Inger Marie Olsen and Charles ffrench-Constant
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:25
  3. Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication...

    Authors: Mikhail Lipatov, Kapa Lenkov, Dmitri A Petrov and Casey M Bergman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:24
  4. Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins through their receptors, the frizzled (Fz) family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins, is critical for numerous cell fate and tissue polarity decisions du...

    Authors: Hyon J Kim, Jack R Schleiffarth, Jose Jessurun, Saulius Sumanas, Anna Petryk, Shuo Lin and Stephen C Ekker
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:23
  5. The Streptophyta comprise all land plants and six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae. Phylogenetic analyses of four genes from three cellular compartments support the following branching order for...

    Authors: Monique Turmel, Christian Otis and Claude Lemieux
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:22
  6. Compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, but its evolution remains poorly understood. GTPases are the oldest enzymes that use nucleotides as substrates and they participate in a wide range of...

    Authors: Emmanuel G Reynaud, Miguel A Andrade, Fabien Bonneau, Thi Bach Nga Ly, Michael Knop, Klaus Scheffzek and Rainer Pepperkok
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:21
  7. Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease partly through improved aerobic fitness. The determinants of exercise-induced gains in aerobic fitness in humans are not known. We have demonstrate...

    Authors: James A Timmons, Eva Jansson, Helene Fischer, Thomas Gustafsson, Paul L Greenhaff, John Ridden, Jonathan Rachman and Carl Johan Sundberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:19
  8. Runx transcription factors play critical roles in the developmental control of cell fate and contribute variously as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors to leukemia and other cancers. To discover fundamental Ru...

    Authors: Carrie Dickey-Sims, Anthony J Robertson, Dawn E Rupp, John J McCarthy and James A Coffman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:18
  9. The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instabil...

    Authors: Ivan Zamora and Wallace F Marshall
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:15
  10. PCI/MPN domain protein complexes comprise the 19S proteasome lid, the COP9 signalosome (CSN), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3). The eIF3 complex is thought to be composed of essential core...

    Authors: Chunshui Zhou, Fatih Arslan, Susan Wee, Srinivasan Krishnan, Alexander R Ivanov, Anna Oliva, Janet Leatherwood and Dieter A Wolf
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:14
  11. A key event in plant morphogenesis is the establishment of a division plane. A plant-specific microtubular preprophase band (PPB) accurately predicts the line of cell division, whereas the phragmoplast, anothe...

    Authors: Pankaj Dhonukshe, Jaideep Mathur, Martin Hülskamp and Theodorus WJ Gadella Jr
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:11
  12. The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming t...

    Authors: Burney J Le Boeuf and Daniel E Crocker
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:9
  13. Parasites exploit sophisticated strategies to evade host immunity that require both adaptation of existing genes and evolution of new gene families. We have addressed this question by testing the immunological...

    Authors: Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Clare Bennett, Lidia Prieto-Lafuente, Toni Aebischer, Clare C Blackburn and Rick M Maizels
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:8
  14. Since the initial publication of its complete genome sequence, Arabidopsis thaliana has become more important than ever as a model for plant research. However, the initial genome annotation was submitted by multi...

    Authors: Brian J Haas, Jennifer R Wortman, Catherine M Ronning, Linda I Hannick, Roger K Smith Jr, Rama Maiti, Agnes P Chan, Chunhui Yu, Maryam Farzad, Dongying Wu, Owen White and Christopher D Town
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:7
  15. It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters th...

    Authors: William P Hanage, Christophe Fraser and Brian G Spratt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:6
  16. Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship betwe...

    Authors: Jussi Päivinen, Alessandro Grapputo, Veijo Kaitala, Atte Komonen, Janne S Kotiaho, Kimmo Saarinen and Niklas Wahlberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:5
  17. Excessive sequential stereotypy of behavioral patterns (sequential super-stereotypy) in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to involve dysfunction in nigrostriatal dopamine s...

    Authors: Kent C Berridge, J Wayne Aldridge, Kimberly R Houchard and Xiaoxi Zhuang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:4
  18. The physiological regulation of G protein-coupled receptors, through desensitization and internalization, modulates the length of the receptor signal and may influence the development of tolerance and dependen...

    Authors: Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Michael D Lieberman, Heather H Elliott and Bruce R Conklin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:3
  19. The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of molecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700...

    Authors: Frank Grønlund Jørgensen, Asger Hobolth, Henrik Hornshøj, Christian Bendixen, Merete Fredholm and Mikkel Heide Schierup
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:2
  20. Drosophila discs-large (DLG) is the sole representative of a large class of mammalian MAGUKs, including human DLG, SAP 97, SAP102, and PSD-95. MAGUKs are thought to be critical for postsynaptic assembly at gluta...

    Authors: Kaiyun Chen and David E Featherstone
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:1
  21. Tumour regression observed in many conditional mouse models following oncogene inactivation provides the impetus to develop, and a platform to preclinically evaluate, novel therapeutics to inactivate specific ...

    Authors: Stella Pelengaris, Sylvie Abouna, Linda Cheung, Vasiliki Ifandi, Sevasti Zervou and Michael Khan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:26
  22. Does the C. elegans nervous system contain multi-neuron computational modules that perform stereotypical functions? We attempt to answer this question by searching for recurring multi-neuron inter-connectivity pa...

    Authors: Markus Reigl, Uri Alon and Dmitri B Chklovskii
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:25
  23. Gab1 is a docking protein that recruits phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) and other effector proteins in response to the activation of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). As the autophosphorylatio...

    Authors: Dawn R Mattoon, Betty Lamothe, Irit Lax and Joseph Schlessinger
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:24
  24. Our aim was to determine if pramipexole, a D3 preferring agonist, effectively reduced dopamine neuron and fiber loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model when given at intraperit...

    Authors: Jeffrey N Joyce, Cheryl Woolsey, Han Ryoo, Sabine Borwege and Diane Hagner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:22
  25. In mammals, there is evidence suggesting that methyl-CpG binding proteins may play a significant role in histone modification through their association with modification complexes that can deacetylate and/or m...

    Authors: Stanley M Gartler, Kartik R Varadarajan, Ping Luo, Theresa K Canfield, Jeff Traynor, Uta Francke and R Scott Hansen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:21
  26. Focal clusters of slow wave activity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz), as measured by magnetencephalography (MEG), are usually located in the vicinity of structural damage in the brain. Such oscillations ...

    Authors: Marcus Meinzer, Thomas Elbert, Christian Wienbruch, Daniela Djundja, Gabriela Barthel and Brigitte Rockstroh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:20
  27. Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is em...

    Authors: Eric A Gaucher, Logan G Graddy, Tang Li, Rosalia CM Simmen, Frank A Simmen, David R Schreiber, David A Liberles, Christine M Janis and Steven A Benner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:19
  28. Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of ...

    Authors: Stéphane Graziani, Philippe Silar and Marie-Josée Daboussi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:18
  29. The callipyge mutation is located within an imprinted gene cluster on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge trait exhibits polar overdominant inheritance due to the fact that only heterozygotes inheriting a mutan...

    Authors: Christopher A Bidwell, Lauren N Kramer, Allison C Perkins, Tracy S Hadfield, Diane E Moody and Noelle E Cockett
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:17
  30. The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptop...

    Authors: Gary Xie, Carol A Bonner, Jian Song, Nemat O Keyhani and Roy A Jensen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:15
  31. The observation of multiple genetic markers in situ by optical microscopy and their relevance to the study of three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal organization in the nucleus have been greatly developed in the last...

    Authors: Tony Chih Yuan Chuang, Sharareh Moshir, Yuval Garini, Alice Ya-Chun Chuang, Ian T Young, Bart Vermolen, Richard van den Doel, Virginie Mougey, Mathilde Perrin, Martina Braun, Paul Donald Kerr, Thierry Fest, Petra Boukamp and Sabine Mai
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:12
  32. DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is essential for S-phase replication, DNA damage repair and checkpoint control in yeast. A pol2-Y831A mutation leading to a tyrosine to alanine change in the Pol ε active site does not ca...

    Authors: Youri I Pavlov, Satoko Maki, Hisaji Maki and Thomas A Kunkel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:11

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:27

  33. The 5' end of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA around the primer-binding site forms a series of RNA secondary stem/loop structures (U5-IR stem, TψC interaction region, U5-leader stem) that are required for eff...

    Authors: Michael Johnson, Shannon Morris, Aiping Chen, Ed Stavnezer and Jonathan Leis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:8
  34. Runx transcription factors are important regulators of metazoan development. The sea urchin Runx gene SpRunt was previously identified as a trans-activator of the CyIIIa actin gene, a differentiation marker of la...

    Authors: James A Coffman, Carrie Dickey-Sims, Jeffrey S Haug, John J McCarthy and Anthony J Robertson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:6
  35. Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and leukocytes within the artery wall is a major event in the development of atherosclerosis. The growth suppressor p27kip1 associates with several cyclin-d...

    Authors: Pelayo González, Antonio Díez-Juan, Eliecer Coto, Victoria Álvarez, Julian R Reguero, Alberto Batalla and Vicente Andrés
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:5
  36. The bacterial ribosome is a primary target of several classes of antibiotics. Investigation of the structure of the ribosomal subunits in complex with different antibiotics can reveal the mode of inhibition of...

    Authors: Jörg M Harms, Frank Schlünzen, Paola Fucini, Heike Bartels and Ada Yonath
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:4
  37. Phylogenetic analyses of jawed vertebrates based on mitochondrial sequences often result in confusing inferences which are obviously inconsistent with generally accepted trees. In particular, in a hypothesis b...

    Authors: Kanae Kikugawa, Kazutaka Katoh, Shigehiro Kuraku, Hiroshi Sakurai, Osamu Ishida, Naoyuki Iwabe and Takashi Miyata
    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:3
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