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  1. Differences in morphology, ecology, and behavior through ontogeny can result in opposing selective pressures at different life stages. Most animals, however, transition through two or more distinct phenotypic ...

    Authors: Ryan K. Schott, Rayna C. Bell, Ellis R. Loew, Kate N. Thomas, David J. Gower, Jeffrey W. Streicher and Matthew K. Fujita
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:138
  2. Vertebrates develop their peripheral nervous system (PNS) from transient unique embryonic structures, the neural crest, and the ectodermal placodes that are located at the border of the forming central nervous...

    Authors: Rafath Chowdhury, Agnès Roure, Yann le Pétillon, Hélène Mayeur, Vladimir Daric and Sébastien Darras
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:152
  3. Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies worldwide, is associated with a high mortality rate, mainly caused by metastasis. Comparative metagenome-wide association analyses of healthy individuals ...

    Authors: Evelien Wynendaele, Nathan Debunne, Yorick Janssens, Anton De Spiegeleer, Frederick Verbeke, Liesa Tack, Sophie Van Welden, Evy Goossens, Daniel Knappe, Ralf Hoffmann, Christophe Van De Wiele, Debby Laukens, Peter Van Eenoo, Lars Vereecke, Filip Van Immerseel, Olivier De Wever…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:151
  4. Age-related hearing loss is a common, heterogeneous disease with a strong genetic component. More than 100 loci have been reported to be involved in human hearing impairment to date, but most of the genes unde...

    Authors: Morag A. Lewis, Bradley A. Schulte, Judy R. Dubno and Karen P. Steel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:150
  5. Fungi use light as an environmental signal to regulate developmental transitions that are key aspects of their biological cycles and that are also relevant for their dispersal and infectivity as plant or anima...

    Authors: María del Mar Gil-Sánchez, Sara Cea-Sánchez, Eva M. Luque, David Cánovas and Luis M. Corrochano
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:149
  6. Venoms are ecological innovations that have evolved numerous times, on each occasion accompanied by the co-evolution of specialised morphological and behavioural characters for venom production and delivery. T...

    Authors: Taline D. Kazandjian, Brett R. Hamilton, Samuel D. Robinson, Steven R. Hall, Keirah E. Bartlett, Paul Rowley, Mark C. Wilkinson, Nicholas R. Casewell and Eivind A. B. Undheim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:148
  7. Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multifunctional enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of a group of diverse natural compounds with biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest called polyketides. The...

    Authors: Cécile Bon, Stéphanie Cabantous, Sylviane Julien, Valérie Guillet, Christian Chalut, Julie Rima, Yoann Brison, Wladimir Malaga, Angelique Sanchez-Dafun, Sabine Gavalda, Annaïk Quémard, Julien Marcoux, Geoffrey S. Waldo, Christophe Guilhot and Lionel Mourey
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:147
  8. Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been one of the most studied model organisms in the history of life sciences. Initially thought just to be commensal bacteria, E. coli has shown wide phenotypic diversity including...

    Authors: Erwin Tantoso, Birgit Eisenhaber, Miles Kirsch, Vladimir Shitov, Zhiya Zhao and Frank Eisenhaber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:146
  9. The establishment of tissue architecture requires coordination between distinct processes including basement membrane assembly, cell adhesion, and polarity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly und...

    Authors: Adnan Mahly, Krishnanand Padmanabhan, Arad Soffer, Jonathan Cohen, Jana Omar, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg and Chen Luxenburg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:145
  10. Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) cause microcephaly and dengue hemorrhagic fever, respectively, leading to severe problems. No effective antiviral agents are approved against infections of these flavi...

    Authors: Yaning Gao, Wanbo Tai, Xinyi Wang, Shibo Jiang, Asim K. Debnath, Lanying Du and Shizhong Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:143
  11. Circadian rhythms are important for all aspects of biology; virtually every aspect of biological function varies according to time of day. Although this is well known, variation across the day is also often ig...

    Authors: Randy J. Nelson, Jacob R. Bumgarner, Jennifer A. Liu, Jharnae A. Love, O. Hecmarie Meléndez-Fernández, Darius D. Becker-Krail, William H. Walker II, James C. Walton, A. Courtney DeVries and Brian J. Prendergast
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:142
  12. DNA methylation is involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during developmental processes and is primarily established by the DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and 3B (DNMT3B). DNMT3A is one of t...

    Authors: Olivia Cypris, Julia Franzen, Joana Frobel, Philipp Glück, Chao-Chung Kuo, Stephani Schmitz, Selina Nüchtern, Martin Zenke and Wolfgang Wagner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:141
  13. Animal locomotion requires dynamic interactions between neural circuits, the body (typically muscles), and surrounding environments. While the neural circuitry of movement has been intensively studied, how the...

    Authors: Xiyang Sun, Yingtao Liu, Chang Liu, Koichi Mayumi, Kohzo Ito, Akinao Nose and Hiroshi Kohsaka
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:130
  14. As the most abundant epigenetic modification of eukaryotic mRNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification has been shown to play a role in mammalian nervous system development and function by regulating mRNA synt...

    Authors: Yeming Yang, Ping Shuai, Xiao Li, Kuanxiang Sun, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wenjing Liu, Weidong Le, Haisong Jiang, Yuping Liu and Xianjun Zhu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:140
  15. Peach (Prunus persica) is an economically important stone fruit crop in Rosaceae and widely cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions, emerging as an excellent material to study the interaction between plan...

    Authors: Ke Cao, Zhen Peng, Xing Zhao, Yong Li, Kuozhan Liu, Pere Arus, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, Jinlong Wu, Zhangjun Fei and Lirong Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:139
  16. β-1,4-endoglucanase (EG) is one of the three types of cellulases used in cellulose saccharification during lignocellulosic biofuel/biomaterial production. GsCelA is an EG secreted by the thermophilic bacterium Ge...

    Authors: Mei-Huey Wu, Mu-Rong Kao, Chen-Wei Li, Su-May Yu and Tuan-Hua David Ho
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:137
  17. Gene expression programs are intimately linked to the interplay of active cis regulatory elements mediated by chromatin contacts and associated RNAs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many va...

    Authors: Jingjin Li, Yue Xiang, Lu Zhang, Xiaolong Qi, Zhuqing Zheng, Peng Zhou, Zhenshuang Tang, Yi Jin, Qiulin Zhao, Yuhua Fu, Yunxia Zhao, Xinyun Li, Liangliang Fu and Shuhong Zhao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:136
  18. Symbiotic ant-plant associations, in which ants live on plants, feed on plant-provided food, and protect host trees against threats, are ubiquitous across the tropics, with the Azteca-Cecropia associations being ...

    Authors: Maximilian Nepel, Josephine Pfeifer, Felix B. Oberhauser, Andreas Richter, Dagmar Woebken and Veronika E. Mayer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:135
  19. The mammalian X and Y chromosomes originated from a pair of ordinary autosomes. Over the past ~180 million years, the X and Y have become highly differentiated and now only recombine with each other within a s...

    Authors: Jennifer F. Hughes, Helen Skaletsky, Peter K. Nicholls, Alexis Drake, Tatyana Pyntikova, Ting-Jan Cho, Daniel W. Bellott and David C. Page
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:133
  20. Generalist herbivores such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae thrive on a wide variety of plants and can rapidly adapt to novel hosts. What traits enable polyphagous herbivores to cope with the di...

    Authors: Christine Njiru, Wenxin Xue, Sander De Rouck, Juan M. Alba, Merijn R. Kant, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Bartel Vanholme, Wannes Dermauw, Nicky Wybouw and Thomas Van Leeuwen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:131
  21. Current understanding of the molecular basis of memory consolidation points to an important function of amyloid formation by neuronal-specific isoforms of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB)...

    Authors: D. Ramírez de Mingo, D. Pantoja-Uceda, R. Hervás, M. Carrión-Vázquez and D. V. Laurents
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:129
  22. A major route for cell-to-cell signalling in plants is mediated by cell wall-embedded pores termed plasmodesmata forming the symplasm. Plasmodesmata regulate the plant development and responses to the environm...

    Authors: Philip Kirk, Sam Amsbury, Liam German, Rocio Gaudioso-Pedraza and Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:128
  23. During the disease cycle, plant pathogenic fungi exhibit a morphological transition between hyphal growth (the phase of active infection) and the production of long-term survival structures that remain dormant...

    Authors: Huan Li, Dan Wang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Qi Geng, Jun-Jiao Li, Ruo-Cheng Sheng, Hui-Shan Xue, He Zhu, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Xiao-Feng Dai, Steven J. Klosterman, Krishna V. Subbarao, Feng-Mao Chen and Jie-Yin Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:125
  24. Neurodevelopmental disorders increase brain tumor risk, suggesting that normal brain development may have protective properties. Mutations in epigenetic regulators are common in pediatric brain tumors, highlig...

    Authors: N. Kfoury-Beaumont, R. Prakasam, S. Pondugula, J. S. Lagas, S. Matkovich, P. Gontarz, L. Yang, H. Yano, A. H. Kim, J. B. Rubin and K. L. Kroll
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:124
  25. In mammals, transitioning from sole milk uptake to the intake of solid feed results in dramatic developmental changes in intestinal function and immunological status. In fact, weaning stress is often accompani...

    Authors: Wenjie Tang, Yifan Zhong, Yusen Wei, Zhaoxi Deng, Jiangdi Mao, Jingliang Liu, Teresa G. Valencak, Jianxin Liu, Heping Xu and Haifeng Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:123
  26. Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that support and insulate axons in the central nervous system through the production of myelin. Oligodendrocytes arise throughout embryonic and early postnatal development from...

    Authors: Markus M. Hilscher, Christoffer Mattsson Langseth, Petra Kukanja, Chika Yokota, Mats Nilsson and Gonçalo Castelo-Branco
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:122
  27. Men with prediabetes often exhibit concomitant low-quality sperm production or even infertility, problems which urgently require improved therapeutic options. In this study, we have established a sheep model o...

    Authors: Yuanchao Sun, Peng Sun, Yanting Hu, Liying Shan, Qi Geng, Yutian Gong, Haitao Fan, Teng Zhang and Yang Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:121
  28. Long-term domestication and intensive breeding of crop plants aim to establish traits desirable for human needs, and characteristics related to yield, disease resistance, and postharvest storage have tradition...

    Authors: Junwei Yang, Bin Liang, Yuemei Zhang, Yun Liu, Shengyuan Wang, Qinqin Yang, Xiaolin Geng, Simiao Liu, Yaoyao Wu, Yingfang Zhu and Tao Lin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:120
  29. Homing gene drives hold great promise for the genetic control of natural populations. However, current homing systems are capable of spreading uncontrollably between populations connected by even marginal leve...

    Authors: Matthew Metzloff, Emily Yang, Sumit Dhole, Andrew G. Clark, Philipp W. Messer and Jackson Champer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:119
  30. A fundamental feature of parasitism is the nutritional exploitation of host organisms by their parasites. Parasitoid wasps lay eggs on arthropod hosts, exploiting them for nutrition to support larval developme...

    Authors: Xinhai Ye, Shijiao Xiong, Ziwen Teng, Yi Yang, Jiale Wang, Kaili Yu, Huizi Wu, Yang Mei, Cheng Xue, Zhichao Yan, Chuanlin Yin, Fang Wang, Hongwei Yao, Qi Fang, Qisheng Song, Gongyin Ye…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:118
  31. The APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3) family of cytidine deaminases is responsible for two mutational signatures (SBS2 and SBS13) found in cancer genomes. APOBEC3 enzymes a...

    Authors: G. Maria Jakobsdottir, Daniel S Brewer, Colin Cooper, Catherine Green and David C Wedge
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:117
  32. Transposable elements (TEs) widely contribute to the evolution of genomes allowing genomic innovations, generating germinal and somatic heterogeneity, and giving birth to long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Petrosino, Giovanna Ponte, Massimiliano Volpe, Ilaria Zarrella, Federico Ansaloni, Concetta Langella, Giulia Di Cristina, Sara Finaurini, Monia T. Russo, Swaraj Basu, Francesco Musacchia, Filomena Ristoratore, Dinko Pavlinic, Vladimir Benes, Maria I. Ferrante, Caroline Albertin…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:116
  33. Activated Cdk5 regulates a number of processes during nervous system formation, including neuronal differentiation, growth cone stabilization, and axonal growth. Cdk5 phosphorylates its downstream substrates l...

    Authors: Doo Soon Im, Alvin Joselin, Devon Svoboda, Tesuya Takano, Maxime W. C. Rousseaux, Steve Callaghan, Ruth S. Slack, Shin-ichi Hisanaga, Roger J. Davis, David S. Park and Dianbo Qu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:115
  34. Intracellularly active antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates for the development of antibiotics for human applications. However, drug development using peptides is challenging as, owing to their larg...

    Authors: Philipp Koch, Steven Schmitt, Alexander Heynisch, Anja Gumpinger, Irene Wüthrich, Marina Gysin, Dimitri Shcherbakov, Sven N. Hobbie, Sven Panke and Martin Held
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:114
  35. The deep-sea may be regarded as a hostile living environment, due to low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and limited food and light. Isopods, a species-rich group of crustaceans, are widely distributed...

    Authors: Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Qi Kou, Yamin Sun, Chengzhang Liu, Shihao Li, Yang Yu, Chengsong Zhang, Songjun Jin, Jianhai Xiang, Xinzheng Li and Fuhua Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:113
  36. MAPK/ERK signaling is a well-known mediator of extracellular stimuli controlling intracellular responses to growth factors and mechanical cues. The critical requirement of MAPK/ERK signaling for embryonic stem...

    Authors: Kristen Kurtzeborn, Hyuk Nam Kwon, Vladislav Iaroshenko, Imrul Faisal, Martin Ambrož, Xing Jin, Talha Qureshi, Jussi Kupari, Anneliis Ihermann-Hella, Juho Väänänen, Henna Tyynismaa, Iva Boušová, Sunghyouk Park and Satu Kuure
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:112
  37. In vertebrate cells, the Golgi functional subunits, mini-stacks, are linked into a tri-dimensional network. How this “ribbon” architecture relates to Golgi functions remains unclear. Are all connections betwee...

    Authors: Karen M. Page, Jessica J. McCormack, Mafalda Lopes-da-Silva, Francesca Patella, Kimberly Harrison-Lavoie, Jemima J. Burden, Ying-Yi Bernadette Quah, Dominic Scaglioni, Francesco Ferraro and Daniel F. Cutler
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:111
  38. Mosquitoes locate a human host by integrating various sensory cues including odor, thermo, and vision. However, their innate light preference and its genetic basis that may predict the spatial distribution of ...

    Authors: Xinyi Liu, Shuzhen Yang, Yuan Yao, Si Wu, Pa Wu and Zongzhao Zhai
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:110
  39. Ovarian follicles, which are the basic units of female reproduction, are composed of oocytes and surrounding somatic (pre) granulosa cells (GCs). A recent study revealed that signaling in somatic preGCs contro...

    Authors: Yanli Dai, Yingnan Bo, Peike Wang, Xueqiang Xu, Meenakshi Singh, Longzhong Jia, Shuo Zhang, Shudong Niu, Kaixin Cheng, Jing Liang, Lu Mu, Kaiying Geng, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang, Yan Zhang and Hua Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:109
  40. Cannabinoids and their derivatives attract strong interest due to the tremendous potential of their psychoactive effects for treating psychiatric disorders and symptoms. However, their clinical application is ...

    Authors: Meilin Wu, Yuanyuan Di, Zhijun Diao, Chuanting Yan, Qiangqiang Cheng, Huan Huang, Yingxun Liu, Chunling Wei, Qiaohua Zheng, Juan Fan, Jing Han, Zhiqiang Liu, Yingfang Tian, Haijun Duan, Wei Ren and Zongpeng Sun
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:108
  41. In both Drosophila and mammals, the achaete-scute (ASC/ASCL) proneural bHLH transcription factors are expressed in the developing central and peripheral nervous systems, where they function during specificatio...

    Authors: Vasiliki Theodorou, Aikaterini Stefanaki, Minas Drakos, Dafne Triantafyllou and Christos Delidakis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:107
  42. Metazoan guts are in permanent contact with microbial communities. However, the host mechanisms that have developed to manage the dynamic changes of these microorganisms and maintain homeostasis remain largely...

    Authors: Tian Zeng, Hong-ai Su, Ya-lan Liu, Jian-fang Li, Ding-xin Jiang, Yong-yue Lu and Yi-xiang Qi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:105
  43. Lifelong production of the many types of mature blood cells from less differentiated progenitors is a hierarchically ordered process that spans multiple cell divisions. The nature and timing of the molecular e...

    Authors: A. Lorzadeh, C. Hammond, F. Wang, D. J. H. F. Knapp, J. CH. Wong, J. Y. A. Zhu, Q. Cao, A. Heravi-Moussavi, A. Carles, M. Wong, Z. Sharafian, J. Steif, M. Moksa, M. Bilenky, P. M. Lavoie, C. J. Eaves…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:104
  44. The coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis is fundamental for the coral reef ecosystem. Corals provide various inorganic nutrients to their algal symbionts in exchange for the photosynthates to meet their metabolic d...

    Authors: Guoxin Cui, Yi Jin Liew, Migle K. Konciute, Ye Zhan, Shiou-Han Hung, Jana Thistle, Lucia Gastoldi, Sebastian Schmidt-Roach, Job Dekker and Manuel Aranda
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:103