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  1. Scales are mineralised exoskeletal structures that are part of the dermal skeleton. Scales have been mostly lost during evolution of terrestrial vertebrates whilst bony fish have retained a mineralised dermal ...

    Authors: Dylan J. M. Bergen, Qiao Tong, Ankit Shukla, Elis Newham, Jan Zethof, Mischa Lundberg, Rebecca Ryan, Scott E. Youlten, Monika Frysz, Peter I. Croucher, Gert Flik, Rebecca J. Richardson, John P. Kemp, Chrissy L. Hammond and Juriaan R. Metz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:21

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Stem cells (SCs) in vertebrates typically reside in “stem cell niches” (SCNs), morphologically restricted tissue microenvironments that are important for SC survival and proliferation. SCNs are broadly defined...

    Authors: P. Martinez, L. Ballarin, A. V. Ereskovsky, E. Gazave, B. Hobmayer, L. Manni, E. Rottinger, S. G. Sprecher, S. Tiozzo, A. Varela-Coelho and B. Rinkevich

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:23

    Content type: Review

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  3. Epigenetic regulation relies on the activity of enzymes that use sentinel metabolites as cofactors to modify DNA or histone proteins. Thus, fluctuations in cellular metabolite levels have been reported to affe...

    Authors: Evelina Charidemou, Maria A. Tsiarli, Andria Theophanous, Vural Yilmaz, Chrysoula Pitsouli, Katerina Strati, Julian L. Griffin and Antonis Kirmizis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:22

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Africa is an important watershed in the genetic history of domestic cattle, as two lineages of modern cattle, Bos taurus and B. indicus, form distinct admixed cattle populations. Despite the predominant B. indicu...

    Authors: Taehyung Kwon, Kwondo Kim, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Samsun Sung, Seoae Cho, Choongwon Jeong, Olivier Hanotte and Heebal Kim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:20

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The role of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their effect on metabolic health is complex. How dietary BCAA levels and their interaction with background nutrition affect health is unclear. Here, w...

    Authors: Samantha M. Solon-Biet, Lucy Griffiths, Sophie Fosh, David G. Le Couteur, Stephen J. Simpson and Alistair M. Senior

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Optogenetic tools allow precise manipulation of neuronal activity via genetically encoded light-sensitive proteins. Currently available optogenetic inhibitors are not suitable for prolonged use due to short-la...

    Authors: P. Kleis, E. Paschen, U. Häussler, Y. A. Bernal Sierra and C. A. Haas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:18

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Infectious diseases of farmed and wild animals pose a recurrent threat to food security and human health. The macrophage, a key component of the innate immune system, is the first line of defence against many ...

    Authors: Stephen Meek, Tom Watson, Lel Eory, Gus McFarlane, Felicity J. Wynne, Stephen McCleary, Laura E. M. Dunn, Emily M. Charlton, Chloe Craig, Barbara Shih, Tim Regan, Ryan Taylor, Linda Sutherland, Anton Gossner, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Sarah Fletcher…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:14

    Content type: Methodology article

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  8. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a cell surface GPI-anchored protein, usually known for its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal prionopathies. However, increasing knowledge about the participation of PrP

    Authors: A. Matamoros-Angles, A. Hervera, J. Soriano, E. Martí, P. Carulla, F. Llorens, M. Nuvolone, A. Aguzzi, I. Ferrer, A. Gruart, J. M. Delgado-García and J. A. Del Río

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:17

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Many named species as defined in current bacterial taxonomy correspond to species complexes. Uncertainties regarding the organization of their genetic diversity challenge research efforts. We utilized the Agrobac...

    Authors: Lin Chou, Yu-Chen Lin, Mindia Haryono, Mary Nia M. Santos, Shu-Ting Cho, Alexandra J. Weisberg, Chih-Feng Wu, Jeff H. Chang, Erh-Min Lai and Chih-Horng Kuo

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:16

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Over 120 million mice and rats are used annually in research, conventionally housed in shoebox-sized cages that restrict natural behaviours (e.g. nesting and burrowing). This can reduce physical fitness, impai...

    Authors: Jessica Cait, Alissa Cait, R. Wilder Scott, Charlotte B. Winder and Georgia J. Mason

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:15

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Mitochondria require thousands of proteins to fulfill their essential function in energy production and other fundamental biological processes. These proteins are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, translat...

    Authors: Mickaële Hémono, Alexandre Haller, Johana Chicher, Anne-Marie Duchêne and Richard Patryk Ngondo

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:13

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The establishment and maintenance of functional neural connections relies on appropriate distribution and localization of mitochondria in neurites, as these organelles provide essential energy and metabolites....

    Authors: Soyeon Lee, Dongkeun Park, Chunghun Lim, Jae-Ick Kim and Kyung-Tai Min

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:12

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Women facing increased energetic demands in childhood commonly have altered adult ovarian activity and shorter reproductive lifespan, possibly comprising a strategy to optimize reproductive success. Here, we s...

    Authors: Ben Bar-Sadeh, Or E. Amichai, Lilach Pnueli, Khurshida Begum, Gregory Leeman, Richard D. Emes, Reinhard Stöger, Gillian R. Bentley and Philippa Melamed

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:11

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The synthetic chemical 1,4-dioxane is used as industrial solvent, food, and care product additive. 1,4-Dioxane has been noted to influence the nervous system in long-term animal experiments and in humans, but ...

    Authors: Xiaoyi Mo, Qiang Liu, Luna Gao, Chang Xie, Xin Wei, Peiyuan Pang, Quan Tian, Yue Gao, Youjing Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Tianchen Xiong, Bo Zhong, Dongdong Li and Jing Yao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:10

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Gasdermins are ancient (>500million-years-ago) proteins, constituting a family of pore-forming proteins that allow the release of intracellular content including proinflammatory cytokines. Despite their import...

    Authors: Diego Angosto-Bazarra, Cristina Alarcón-Vila, Laura Hurtado-Navarro, María C. Baños, Jack Rivers-Auty and Pablo Pelegrín

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:9

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds tremendous potential for basic research and cell-based gene therapy. However, the fulfillment of these promises r...

    Authors: Joffrey Mianné, Amel Nasri, Chloé Nguyen Van, Chloé Bourguignon, Mathieu Fieldès, Engi Ahmed, Christine Duthoit, Nicolas Martin, Hugues Parrinello, Anaïs Louis, Alexandra Iché, Régis Gayon, Florine Samain, Lucille Lamouroux, Pascale Bouillé, Arnaud Bourdin…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:8

    Content type: Research article

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  17. A single circular mitochondrial (mt) genome is a common feature across most metazoans. The mt-genome includes protein-coding genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, as well as RNAs necessary for translati...

    Authors: Shiqian Feng, Andrea Pozzi, Vaclav Stejskal, George Opit, Qianqian Yang, Renfu Shao, Damian K. Dowling and Zhihong Li

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:7

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The cytoskeleton is a key component of the system responsible for transmitting mechanical cues from the cellular environment to the nucleus, where they trigger downstream responses. This communication is parti...

    Authors: Juan José Romero, María Cecilia De Rossi, Camila Oses, Camila Vázquez Echegaray, Paula Verneri, Marcos Francia, Alejandra Guberman and Valeria Levi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:6

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Fishes are the one of the most diverse groups of animals with respect to their modes of sex determination, providing unique models for uncovering the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sex determ...

    Authors: Le Wang, Fei Sun, Zi Yi Wan, Zituo Yang, Yi Xuan Tay, May Lee, Baoqing Ye, Yanfei Wen, Zining Meng, Bin Fan, Yuzer Alfiko, Yubang Shen, Francesc Piferrer, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl and Gen Hua Yue

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The explosive radiation and diversification of the advanced snakes (superfamily Colubroidea) was associated with changes in all aspects of the shared venom system. Morphological changes included the partitioni...

    Authors: Bing Xie, Daniel Dashevsky, Darin Rokyta, Parviz Ghezellou, Behzad Fathinia, Qiong Shi, Michael K. Richardson and Bryan G. Fry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:4

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are crucial to their social communication and a widely used translational tool for linking gene mutations to behavior. To maximize the causal interpretation of experiment...

    Authors: Jonas Håkansson, Weili Jiang, Qian Xue, Xudong Zheng, Ming Ding, Anurag A. Agarwal and Coen P. H. Elemans

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:3

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that can insert at specific target sequences, however, their origins are often challenging to reconstruct because of rapid sequence decay following invasion and spr...

    Authors: Dongseok Kim, JunMo Lee, Chung Hyun Cho, Eun Jeung Kim, Debashish Bhattacharya and Hwan Su Yoon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:2

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Across the Metazoa, similar genetic programs are found in the development of analogous, independently evolved, morphological features. The functional significance of this reuse and the underlying mechanisms of...

    Authors: Stephanie Neal, Kyle J. McCulloch, Francesca R. Napoli, Christina M. Daly, James H. Coleman and Kristen M. Koenig

    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The cervicovaginal microbiome (CVM) plays a significant role in women’s cervical health and disease. Microbial alterations at the species level and characteristic community state types (CST) have been associat...

    Authors: Karolina M. Andralojc, Mariano A. Molina, Mengjie Qiu, Bram Spruijtenburg, Menno Rasing, Bernard Pater, Martijn A. Huynen, Bas E. Dutilh, Thomas H. A. Ederveen, Duaa Elmelik, Albert G. Siebers, Diede Loopik, Ruud L. M. Bekkers, William P. J. Leenders and Willem J. G. Melchers

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:267

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Rett syndrome (RTT) is a monogenic X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, which lead to structural and functional changes in synapse communication, ...

    Authors: Clara Alice Musi, Anna Maria Castaldo, Anna Elisa Valsecchi, Sara Cimini, Noemi Morello, Riccardo Pizzo, Alessandra Renieri, Ilaria Meloni, Maurizio Bonati, Maurizio Giustetto and Tiziana Borsello

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:256

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Tissue hypoxia is a key feature of several endemic hepatic diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and organ failure. Hypoxia imposes a severe metabolic challenge on the liver, pot...

    Authors: Katie A. O’Brien, Ben D. McNally, Alice P. Sowton, Antonio Murgia, James Armitage, Luke W. Thomas, Fynn N. Krause, Lucas A. Maddalena, Ian Francis, Stefan Kavanagh, Dominic P. Williams, Margaret Ashcroft, Julian L. Griffin, Jonathan J. Lyon and Andrew J. Murray

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:265

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Ciliated protists are a widely distributed, morphologically diverse, and genetically heterogeneous group of unicellular organisms, usually known for containing two types of nuclei: a transcribed polyploid macr...

    Authors: Wenbing Chen, Changling Zuo, Chundi Wang, Tengteng Zhang, Liping Lyu, Yu Qiao, Fangqing Zhao and Miao Miao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:264

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Cells and organisms typically cannot survive in the absence of water. However, some animals including nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, and some arthropods are able to survive near-complete desiccation. One cl...

    Authors: Jonathan D. Hibshman and Bob Goldstein

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:263

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Tigecycline is a tetracycline derivative that constitutes one of the last-resort antibiotics used clinically to treat infections caused by both multiple drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bac...

    Authors: Qipeng Cheng, Yanchu Cheung, Chenyu Liu, Qingjie Xiao, Bo Sun, Jiahai Zhou, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Rong Zhang and Sheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:262

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are high-energy derivatives of inositol, involved in different signalling and regulatory responses of eukaryotic cells. Distinct PP-InsPs species are characterized by the pre...

    Authors: Anuj Shukla, Mandeep Kaur, Swati Kanwar, Gazaldeep Kaur, Shivani Sharma, Shubhra Ganguli, Vandana Kumari, Koushik Mazumder, Pratima Pandey, Hatem Rouached, Vikas Rishi, Rashna Bhandari and Ajay Kumar Pandey

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:261

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The integrity of microtubule filament networks is essential for the roles in diverse cellular functions, and disruption of its structure or dynamics has been explored as a therapeutic approach to tackle diseas...

    Authors: Ashley M. Rozario, Sam Duwé, Cade Elliott, Riley B. Hargreaves, Gregory W. Moseley, Peter Dedecker, Donna R. Whelan and Toby D. M. Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:260

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Hunter-gatherer lifestyles dominated the southern African landscape up to ~ 2000 years ago, when herding and farming groups started to arrive in the area. First, herding and livestock, likely of East African o...

    Authors: Mário Vicente, Imke Lankheet, Thembi Russell, Nina Hollfelder, Vinet Coetzee, Himla Soodyall, Michael De Jongh and Carina M. Schlebusch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:259

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Yeasts of the CTG-clade lineage, which includes the human-infecting Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis species, are characterized by an altered genetic code. Instead of translating CUG ...

    Authors: Stefanie Mühlhausen, Hans Dieter Schmitt, Uwe Plessmann, Peter Mienkus, Pia Sternisek, Thorsten Perl, Michael Weig, Henning Urlaub, Oliver Bader and Martin Kollmar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The evolutionary history of cell types provides insights into how morphological and functional complexity arose during animal evolution. Photoreceptor cell types are particularly broadly distributed throughout...

    Authors: Jonathan E. Valencia, Roberto Feuda, Dan O. Mellott, Robert D. Burke and Isabelle S. Peter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:257

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The consequences of the earth’s daily rotation have led to 24-h biological rhythms in most organisms. Even some parasites are known to have daily rhythms, which, when in synchrony with host rhythms, can optimi...

    Authors: Kate A. Rawlinson, Adam J. Reid, Zhigang Lu, Patrick Driguez, Anna Wawer, Avril Coghlan, Geetha Sankaranarayanan, Sarah K. Buddenborg, Carmen Diaz Soria, Catherine McCarthy, Nancy Holroyd, Mandy Sanders, Karl F. Hoffmann, David Wilcockson, Gabriel Rinaldi and Matthew Berriman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:255

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Functional genomic analyses rely on high-quality genome assemblies and annotations. Highly contiguous genome assemblies have become available for a variety of species, but accurate and complete annotation of g...

    Authors: Emily J. Shields, Masato Sorida, Lihong Sheng, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Long Ding and Roberto Bonasio

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:254

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Snakes and primates have a multi-layered coevolutionary history as predators, prey, and competitors with each other. Previous work has explored the Snake Detection Theory (SDT), which focuses on the role of sn...

    Authors: Richard J. Harris, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris and Bryan G. Fry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:253

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although electrical stimulation of the peripheral and central nervous systems has attracted much attention owing to its potential therapeutic effects on neuropsychiatric diseases, its non-cell-type-specific ac...

    Authors: Yi Cao, Suwan Pan, Mengying Yan, Chongyang Sun, Jianyu Huang, Cheng Zhong, Liping Wang and Lu Yi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:252

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The phylum Euglenozoa is a group of flagellated protists comprising the diplonemids, euglenids, symbiontids, and kinetoplastids. The diplonemids are highly abundant and speciose, and recent tools have rendered...

    Authors: Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Kristína Záhonová, Valéria Juricová, Maksym Danchenko, Martin Moos, Peter Baráth, Galina Prokopchuk, Anzhelika Butenko, Veronika Lukáčová, Lenka Kohútová, Barbora Bučková, Aleš Horák, Drahomíra Faktorová, Anton Horváth, Petr Šimek and Julius Lukeš

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:251

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Diatoms usually dominate phytoplankton blooms in open oceans, exhibiting extremely high population densities. Although the iron uptake rate of diatoms largely determines the magnitude and longevity of diatom b...

    Authors: Xuehua Liu, Xiujun Xie, Shan Gao, Lepu Wang, Lu Zhou, Yao Liu, Qiang Hu, Wenhui Gu and Guangce Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:249

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Lipid species are accurately distributed in the eukaryotic cell so that organelle and plasma membranes have an adequate lipid composition to support numerous cellular functions. In the plasma membrane, a preci...

    Authors: Souade Ikhlef, Nicolas-Frédéric Lipp, Vanessa Delfosse, Nicolas Fuggetta, William Bourguet, Maud Magdeleine and Guillaume Drin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:248

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The main function of telomerase is at the telomeres but under adverse conditions telomerase can bind to internal regions causing deleterious effects as observed in cancer cells.

    Authors: Satyaprakash Pandey, Mona Hajikazemi, Theresa Zacheja, Stephanie Schalbetter, Jonathan Baxter, Victor Guryev, Andreas Hofmann, Dieter W. Heermann, Stefan A. Juranek and Katrin Paeschke

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:247

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cell membrane fusion and multinucleation in macrophages are associated with physiologic homeostasis as well as disease. Osteoclasts are multinucleated macrophages that resorb bone through increased metabolic a...

    Authors: Antoni Olona, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Charlotte Hateley, Fernando O. Martinez, Siamon Gordon and Jacques Behmoaras

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:246

    Content type: Review

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  44. The Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex that plays major roles in transcriptional activation and is essential for cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Rece...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Shi, Jian Chen, Wei-Jie Zeng, Miao Li, Wenxue Zhao, Xing-Ding Zhang and Jie Yao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:245

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Mammals possess unique hearing capacities that differ significantly from those of the rest of the amniotes. In order to gain insights into the evolution of the mammalian inner ear, we aim to identify the set o...

    Authors: Anabella P. Trigila, Francisco Pisciottano and Lucía F. Franchini

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:244

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) are found in most, if not all, biological fluids and are becoming well-established non-invasive biomarkers of many human pathologies. However, their features in non-pathological c...

    Authors: Emilie Cardona, Cervin Guyomar, Thomas Desvignes, Jérôme Montfort, Samia Guendouz, John H. Postlethwait, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy and Julien Bobe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:235

    Content type: Research article

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