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  1. Starch, a vital plant-derived polysaccharide comprised of branched glucans, is essential in nutrition and many industrial applications. Starch is often modified post-extraction to alter its structure and enhan...

    Authors: Barbara Pfister, Jessica M. Shields, Tobias Kockmann, Jonas Grossmann, Melanie R. Abt, Martha Stadler and Samuel C. Zeeman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:207
  2. Giardia lamblia, a parasitic protist of the Metamonada supergroup, has evolved one of the most diverged endocytic compartment systems investigated so far. Peripheral endocytic compartments, currently known as pe...

    Authors: Rui Santos, Ásgeir Ástvaldsson, Shweta V. Pipaliya, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Joel B. Dacks, Staffan Svärd, Adrian B. Hehl and Carmen Faso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:206
  3. Oxytocin, secreted by oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus, is an endogenous neuropeptide involved in modulating multiple sensory information processing pathways, and its roles in the brain have been associate...

    Authors: Songhui Hu, Yurong Wang, Xu Han, Min Dai, Yongxing Zhang, Yuanyuan Ma, Shijun Weng and Lei Xiao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:205
  4. B chromosomes are extra elements found in several eukaryote species. Usually, they do not express a phenotype in the host. However, advances in bioinformatics over the last decades have allowed us to describe ...

    Authors: Jordana Inácio Nascimento Oliveira, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Ivan Rodrigo Wolf, Rogério Antônio de Oliveira and Cesar Martins
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:204
  5. In recent years, Precambrian lifeforms have generated an ever-increasing interest because they revealed a rich eukaryotic diversity prior to the Cambrian explosion of modern animals. Among them, macroalgae are...

    Authors: Shu Chai, Cédric Aria and Hong Hua
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:199
  6. To disperse in water-unsaturated environments, such as the soil, bacteria rely on the availability and structure of water films forming on biotic and abiotic surfaces, and, especially, along fungal mycelia. Di...

    Authors: Thierry Kuhn, Matteo Buffi, Saskia Bindschedler, Patrick S. Chain, Diego Gonzalez, Claire E. Stanley, Lukas Y. Wick, Pilar Junier and Xiang-Yi Li Richter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:203
  7. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are divergent across the animal kingdom, yet these mechanisms are not well studied in non-model organisms. Unique features of cephalopods make them attractive for investigating...

    Authors: Filippo Macchi, Eric Edsinger and Kirsten C. Sadler
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:202
  8. Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient element for herbivorous insects. To alleviate nitrogen limitation, insects have evolved various symbiotically mediated strategies that enable them to colonize ...

    Authors: Xueming Ren, Shuai Cao, Mazarin Akami, Abdelaziz Mansour, Yishi Yang, Nan Jiang, Haoran Wang, Guijian Zhang, Xuewei Qi, Penghui Xu, Tong Guo and Changying Niu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:201
  9. Interspecific postzygotic reproduction isolation results from large genetic divergence between the subgenomes of established hybrids. Polyploidization immediately after hybridization may reset patterns of homo...

    Authors: Li Ren, Xin Gao, Jialin Cui, Chun Zhang, He Dai, Mengxue Luo, Shaofang He, Qinbo Qin, Kaikun Luo, Min Tao, Jun Xiao, Jing Wang, Hong Zhang, Xueyin Zhang, Yi Zhou, Jing Wang…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:200
  10. Drosophila melanogaster lipophorin receptors (LpRs), LpR1 and LpR2, are members of the LDLR family known to mediate lipid uptake in a range of organisms from Drosophila to humans. The vertebrate orthologs of LpRs...

    Authors: Francisca Rojo-Cortés, Nicolás Fuenzalida-Uribe, Victoria Tapia-Valladares, Candy B. Roa, Sergio Hidalgo, María-Constanza González-Ramírez, Carlos Oliva, Jorge M. Campusano and María-Paz Marzolo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:198
  11. Little is known about how normal variation in dietary patterns in humans affects the ageing process. To date, most analyses of the problem have used a unidimensional paradigm, being concerned with the effects ...

    Authors: Alistair M. Senior, Véronique Legault, Francis B. Lavoie, Nancy Presse, Pierrette Gaudreau, Valérie Turcot, David Raubenheimer, David G. Le Couteur, Stephen J. Simpson and Alan A. Cohen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:196
  12. Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) perceive their environment through a range of sensory modalities, including olfaction. Anatomical diversity of the olfactory organ suggests that olfaction is differentially i...

    Authors: Maxime Policarpo, Katherine E. Bemis, Patrick Laurenti, Laurent Legendre, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Sylvie Rétaux and Didier Casane
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:195
  13. Nuclear factor 90 (NF90) is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein involved in a multitude of different cellular mechanisms such as transcription, translation, viral infection, and mRNA stability. Recent data s...

    Authors: Giuseppa Grasso, Charbel Akkawi, Celine Franckhauser, Rima Nait-Saidi, Maxime Bello, Jérôme Barbier and Rosemary Kiernan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:194
  14. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are frequently collected and provide disease- and treatment-relevant data in clinical studies. Here, we developed combined protein (40 antibodies) and t...

    Authors: Jenifer Vallejo, Ryosuke Saigusa, Rishab Gulati, Sujit Silas Armstrong Suthahar, Vasantika Suryawanshi, Ahmad Alimadadi, Christopher P. Durant, Yanal Ghosheh, Payel Roy, Erik Ehinger, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, David B. Hanna, Alan L. Landay, Russell P. Tracy, Jason M. Lazar, Wendy J. Mack…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:193
  15. In a time of rapid environmental change, understanding how the challenges experienced by one generation can influence the fitness of future generations is critically needed. Using tolerance assays and transcri...

    Authors: Alexandria Ragsdale, Oscar Ortega-Recalde, Ludovic Dutoit, Anne A. Besson, Jolyn H. Z. Chia, Tania King, Shinichi Nakagawa, Anthony Hickey, Neil J. Gemmell, Timothy Hore and Sheri L. Johnson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:185
  16. It has been known for centuries that cats respond euphorically to Nepeta cataria (catnip). Recently, we have shown that Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle), Actinidia polygama (silver vine), and Valeriana of...

    Authors: Sebastiaan Bol, Adrian Scaffidi, Evelien M. Bunnik and Gavin R. Flematti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:192
  17. Biological invasions are responsible for substantial environmental and economic losses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is an important invasive bark beetle from North America that h...

    Authors: Zhudong Liu, Longsheng Xing, Wanlong Huang, Bo Liu, Fanghao Wan, Kenneth F. Raffa, Richard W. Hofstetter, Wanqiang Qian and Jianghua Sun
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:190
  18. T cell activation leads to increased expression of the receptor for the iron transporter transferrin (TfR) to provide iron required for the cell differentiation and clonal expansion that takes place during the...

    Authors: Pascal Rossatti, Gregory M. I. Redpath, Luca Ziegler, Guerric P. B. Samson, Camille D. Clamagirand, Daniel F. Legler and Jérémie Rossy
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:189
  19. The blue-crowned laughingthrush (Garrulax courtoisi) is a critically endangered songbird endemic to Wuyuan, China, with population of ~323 individuals. It has attracted widespread attention, but the lack of a pub...

    Authors: Hao Chen, Min Huang, Daoqiang Liu, Hongbo Tang, Sumei Zheng, Jing Ouyang, Hui Zhang, Luping Wang, Keyi Luo, Yuren Gao, Yongfei Wu, Yan Wu, Yanpeng Xiong, Tao Luo, Yuxuan Huang, Rui Xiong…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:188
  20. Kisspeptins are neuropeptides that regulate reproductive maturation in mammals via G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus. Phylogeneti...

    Authors: Nayeli Escudero Castelán, Dean C. Semmens, Luis Alfonso Yañez Guerra, Meet Zandawala, Mario dos Reis, Susan E. Slade, James H. Scrivens, Cleidiane G. Zampronio, Alexandra M. Jones, Olivier Mirabeau and Maurice R. Elphick
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:187
  21. Karat (Musa troglodytarum L.) is an autotriploid Fe’i banana of the Australimusa section. Karat was domesticated independently in the Pacific region, and karat fruit are characterized by a pink sap, a deep yellow...

    Authors: Zhiying Li, Jiabin Wang, Yunliu Fu, Yonglin Jing, Bilan Huang, Ying Chen, Qinglong Wang, Xiao Bing Wang, Chunyang Meng, Qingquan Yang and Li Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:186
  22. Chromatin-modifying proteins are key players in the regulation of development and cell differentiation in animals. Most chromatin modifiers, however, predate the evolution of animal multicellularity, and how t...

    Authors: James M. Gahan, Lucas Leclère, Maria Hernandez-Valladares and Fabian Rentzsch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:184
  23. Efficient tools allowing the extraction of 2D surfaces from 3D-microscopy data are essential for studies aiming to decipher the complex cellular choreography through which epithelium morphogenesis takes place ...

    Authors: Céline Trébeau, Jacques Boutet de Monvel, Gizem Altay, Jean-Yves Tinevez and Raphaël Etournay
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:183
  24. SP140 is a bromodomain-containing protein expressed predominantly in immune cells. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications in the SP140 locus have been linked to Crohn’s disease (CD), suggesting a role...

    Authors: Mohammed Ghiboub, Jan Koster, Peter D. Craggs, Andrew Y. F. Li Yim, Anthony Shillings, Sue Hutchinson, Ryan P. Bingham, Kelly Gatfield, Ishtu L. Hageman, Gang Yao, Heather P. O’Keefe, Aaron Coffin, Amish Patel, Lisa A. Sloan, Darren J. Mitchell, Thomas G. Hayhow…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:182
  25. The mitochondrion is an important cellular component in plants and that functions in producing vital energy for the cell. However, the evolution and structure of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) remain uncl...

    Authors: Manyi Sun, Mingyue Zhang, Xuening Chen, Yueyuan Liu, Binbin Liu, Jiaming Li, Runze Wang, Kejiao Zhao and Jun Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:181
  26. Buoyancy and balance are important parameters for slow-moving, low-metabolic, aquatic organisms. The extant coelacanths have among the lowest metabolic rates of any living vertebrate and can afford little ener...

    Authors: Henrik Lauridsen, Jens Mikkel Hyllested Pedersen, Steffen Ringgaard and Peter Rask Møller
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:180
  27. Microscopy techniques and image segmentation algorithms have improved dramatically this decade, leading to an ever increasing amount of biological images and a greater reliance on imaging to investigate biolog...

    Authors: Gustave Ronteix, Andrey Aristov, Valentin Bonnet, Sebastien Sart, Jeremie Sobel, Elric Esposito and Charles N. Baroud
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:178
  28. Kinesin-3 family motors drive diverse cellular processes and have significant clinical importance. The ATPase cycle is integral to the processive motility of kinesin motors to drive long-distance intracellular...

    Authors: Pushpanjali Soppina, Nishaben Patel, Dipeshwari J. Shewale, Ashim Rai, Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan, Pradeep K. Naik and Virupakshi Soppina
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:177
  29. Calmodulin (CaM) is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic multifunctional protein that functions as the major sensor of intracellular calcium signaling. Its calcium-modulated function regulates the activity o...

    Authors: Corentin Léger, Irène Pitard, Mirko Sadi, Nicolas Carvalho, Sébastien Brier, Ariel Mechaly, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Maryline Davi, Sylviane Hoos, Patrick Weber, Patrice Vachette, Dominique Durand, Ahmed Haouz, J. Iñaki Guijarro, Daniel Ladant and Alexandre Chenal
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:176
  30. Cyanobacteria are the major prokaryotic primary producers occupying a range of aquatic habitats worldwide that differ in levels of salinity, making them a group of interest to study one of the major unresolved...

    Authors: Pedro J. Cabello-Yeves, Cristiana Callieri, Antonio Picazo, Lena Schallenberg, Paula Huber, Juan J. Roda-Garcia, Maciej Bartosiewicz, Olga I. Belykh, Irina V. Tikhonova, Alberto Torcello-Requena, Paula Martin De Prado, Richard J. Puxty, Andrew D. Millard, Antonio Camacho, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera and David J. Scanlan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:175
  31. High-throughput live-cell imaging is a powerful tool to study dynamic cellular processes in single cells but creates a bottleneck at the stage of data analysis, due to the large amount of data generated and li...

    Authors: Francesco Padovani, Benedikt Mairhörmann, Pascal Falter-Braun, Jette Lengefeld and Kurt M. Schmoller
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:174
  32. Non-crossover (NCO) refers to a mechanism of homologous recombination in which short tracks of DNA are copied between homologue chromatids. The allelic changes are typically restricted to one or few SNPs, whic...

    Authors: Bernett Lee, Samantha Leeanne Cyrill, Wendy Lee, Rossella Melchiotti, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Michael Poidinger and Olaf Rötzschke
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:173
  33. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are multi-protein machines highly conserved across eukaryotic genomes. They control sliding and displacing of the nucleosomes, modulating histone-DNA interactions a...

    Authors: Giovanni Messina, Yuri Prozzillo, Francesca Delle Monache, Maria Virginia Santopietro and Patrizio Dimitri
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:172
  34. The high-mobility group Hmga family of proteins are non-histone chromatin-interacting proteins which have been associated with a number of nuclear functions, including heterochromatin formation, replication, r...

    Authors: Giuseppina Divisato, Andrea M. Chiariello, Andrea Esposito, Pietro Zoppoli, Federico Zambelli, Maria Antonietta Elia, Graziano Pesole, Danny Incarnato, Fabiana Passaro, Silvia Piscitelli, Salvatore Oliviero, Mario Nicodemi, Silvia Parisi and Tommaso Russo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:171
  35. Neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are common, multi-factorial and multi-symptomatic disorders. Ample evidence implicates oxidative stress, deficient rep...

    Authors: Flavia S. Mueller, René Amport, Tina Notter, Sina M. Schalbetter, Han-Yu Lin, Zuzana Garajova, Parisa Amini, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer and Enni Markkanen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:170
  36. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) acts as a transcriptional coactivator and regulates mitochondrial function. Various isoforms are generated by alternative splicing ...

    Authors: Daniel Oehler, André Spychala, Axel Gödecke, Alexander Lang, Norbert Gerdes, Jorge Ruas, Malte Kelm, Julia Szendroedi and Ralf Westenfeld
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:169
  37. Chimeras are genetically mixed entities resulting from the fusion of two or more conspecifics. This phenomenon is widely distributed in nature and documented in a variety of animal and plant phyla. In corals, ...

    Authors: Jeremie Vidal-Dupiol, Erwan Harscouet, Dor Shefy, Eve Toulza, Olivier Rey, Jean-François Allienne, Guillaume Mitta and Baruch Rinkevich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:167
  38. Yunnan is located in Southwest China and consists of great cultural, linguistic, and genetic diversity. However, the genomic diversity of ethnic minorities in Yunnan is largely under-investigated. To gain insi...

    Authors: Zhaoqing Yang, Hao Chen, Yan Lu, Yang Gao, Hao Sun, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin, Jiayou Chu and Shuhua Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:166
  39. Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements present in eukaryote genomes, which constitute indispensable determinants of gene regulation by governing the spatiotemporal and quantitative expression dynamics of target...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Meng Tang, Mengling Huang, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang, Xiao Yu and Bo Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:165
  40. Mitochondria have an essential role in regulating metabolism and integrate environmental and physiological signals to affect processes such as cellular bioenergetics and response to stress. In the metabolicall...

    Authors: Adam J. Trewin, Jessica Silver, Hayley T. Dillon, Paul A. Della Gatta, Lewan Parker, Danielle S. Hiam, Yin Peng Lee, Mark Richardson, Glenn D. Wadley and Séverine Lamon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:164
  41. Aggressive cancers commonly ferment glucose to lactic acid at high rates, even in the presence of oxygen. This is known as aerobic glycolysis, or the “Warburg Effect.” It is widely assumed that this is a conse...

    Authors: Shonagh Russell, Liping Xu, Yoonseok Kam, Dominique Abrahams, Bryce Ordway, Alex S. Lopez, Marilyn M. Bui, Joseph Johnson, Tamir Epstein, Epifanio Ruiz, Mark C. Lloyd, Pawel Swietach, Daniel Verduzco, Jonathan Wojtkowiak and Robert J. Gillies
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:163
  42. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification required for a number of physiological functions regulating protein homeostasis, such as protein degradation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control ...

    Authors: Kaori Nozawa, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Darius J. Devlin, Ricardo E. Deras, Katarzyna Kent, Irina V. Larina, Kohei Umezu, Zhifeng Yu, Courtney M. Sutton, Qiuji Ye, Laura K. Dean, Chihiro Emori, Masahito Ikawa, Thomas X. Garcia and Martin M. Matzuk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:161
  43. In many organisms, aging is characterized by a loss of mitochondrial homeostasis. Multiple factors such as respiratory metabolism, mitochondrial fusion/fission, or mitophagy have been linked to cell longevity,...

    Authors: Montserrat Vega, David Castillo, Laura de Cubas, Yirong Wang, Ying Huang, Elena Hidalgo and Margarita Cabrera
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:160
  44. Various mammalian species emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which reflect their emotional state and mediate social interactions. USVs are usually analyzed by manual or semi-automated methodologies that cat...

    Authors: Shai Netser, Guy Nahardiya, Gili Weiss-Dicker, Roei Dadush, Yizhaq Goussha, Shanah Rachel John, Mor Taub, Yuval Werber, Nir Sapir, Yossi Yovel, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Lior Cohen, Koby Crammer and Shlomo Wagner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:159
  45. In a broad variety of species, muscle contraction is controlled at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the peripheral synapse composed of a motor nerve terminal, a muscle specialization, and non-myelinating term...

    Authors: Francisca Bermedo-García, Diego Zelada, Esperanza Martínez, Lucía Tabares and Juan Pablo Henríquez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:158