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  1. Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa) can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellu...

    Authors: Roberto Danovaro, Antonio Dell'Anno, Antonio Pusceddu, Cristina Gambi, Iben Heiner and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:30
  2. Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of parti...

    Authors: Christopher N Balakrishnan, Robert Ekblom, Martin Völker, Helena Westerdahl, Ricardo Godinez, Holly Kotkiewicz, David W Burt, Tina Graves, Darren K Griffin, Wesley C Warren and Scott V Edwards
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:29
  3. Among songbirds, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is an excellent model system for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying complex behaviours such as vocal communication, learning and social interacti...

    Authors: Fang Xie, Sarah E London, Bruce R Southey, Suresh P Annangudi, Andinet Amare, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, David F Clayton and Jonathan V Sweedler
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:28
  4. Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular p...

    Authors: Maria Laine P Tinoco, Bárbara BA Dias, Rebeca C Dall'Astta, João A Pamphile and Francisco JL Aragão
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:27
  5. Speculation regarding the importance of changes in gene regulation in determining major phylogenetic patterns continues to accrue, despite a lack of broad-scale comparative studies examining how patterns of ge...

    Authors: Carlo G Artieri and Rama S Singh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:26
  6. Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused o...

    Authors: Frank Schreiber, Peter Stief, Armin Gieseke, Ines M Heisterkamp, Willy Verstraete, Dirk de Beer and Paul Stoodley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:24
  7. The ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) box proteins (Asbs) are a large protein family implicated in diverse biological processes including regulation of proliferation and differentiati...

    Authors: Sanghoon Kwon, Dongbum Kim, Jae Won Rhee, Jeong-A Park, Dae-Won Kim, Doo-Sik Kim, Younghee Lee and Hyung-Joo Kwon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:23
  8. Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for t...

    Authors: Manoj Gambhir, Moses Bockarie, Daniel Tisch, James Kazura, Justin Remais, Robert Spear and Edwin Michael
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:22
  9. The increased battery of molecular markers, derived from comparative genomics, is aiding our understanding of the genetics of domestication. The recent BMC Biology article pertaining to the evolution of small siz...

    Authors: Rodney L Honeycutt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:20
  10. Among the greatest challenges for biology in the 21st century is inference of the tree of life. Interest in, and progress toward, this goal has increased dramatically with the growing availability of molecular...

    Authors: Robert C Thomson and H Bradley Shaffer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:19
  11. Technological advances have enabled the accurate quantification of gene expression, even within single cell types. While transcriptome analyses are routinely performed, most experimental designs only provide s...

    Authors: Rémy Merret, Bruno Moulia, Irène Hummel, David Cohen, Erwin Dreyer and Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:18
  12. The Dlc1 (deleted in liver cancer 1) tumour suppressor gene codes for a RhoGTPase activating protein that is found inactivated in many tumour types. Several transcriptional isoforms have been described but the...

    Authors: Mohammad G Sabbir, Nichola Wigle, Shauna Loewen, Yuan Gu, Cordula Buse, Geoffrey G Hicks and Michael RA Mowat
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:17
  13. A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) foun...

    Authors: Melissa M Gray, Nathan B Sutter, Elaine A Ostrander and Robert K Wayne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:16
  14. The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at wh...

    Authors: Chunxiang Li, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, Chengzhi Xie, Dawei Cai, Wenying Li, Victor H Mair, Zhi Xu, Quanchao Zhang, Idelisi Abuduresule, Li Jin, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:15
  15. Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutations increase longevity and much evidence suggests that they do so at least partly via changes in metabolism. However, up until now there has been no systematic investigation of h...

    Authors: Silke Fuchs, Jacob G Bundy, Sarah K Davies, Jonathan M Viney, Jonathan S Swire and Armand M Leroi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:14
  16. Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or de...

    Authors: Christopher D Dardick, Ann M Callahan, Remo Chiozzotto, Robert J Schaffer, M Claudia Piagnani and Ralph Scorza
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:13
  17. Endothelial cell-cell junctions maintain endothelial integrity and regulate vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis. Cell-cell junctions are usually depicted with a linear morphology along the boundaries betwee...

    Authors: Jaime Millán, Robert J Cain, Natalia Reglero-Real, Carolina Bigarella, Beatriz Marcos-Ramiro, Laura Fernández-Martín, Isabel Correas and Anne J Ridley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:11
  18. Surveys of ontogenetic development of hearing and sound production in fish are scarce, and the ontogenetic development of acoustic communication has been investigated in only two fish species so far. Studies o...

    Authors: Walter Lechner, Lidia Eva Wysocki and Friedrich Ladich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:10
  19. Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some linea...

    Authors: Stephen H Montgomery, Isabella Capellini, Robert A Barton and Nicholas I Mundy
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:9
  20. While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of b...

    Authors: Thomas A Stewart and R Craig Albertson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:8
  21. Previous studies have linked neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE protein to the bone morphogenic protein signaling pathway and its effect on p38 mediated apoptosis of neural progenitor cells via the XIAP-Ta...

    Authors: Nicholas Matluk, Jennifer A Rochira, Aldona Karaczyn, Tamara Adams and Joseph M Verdi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:7
  22. Folate (vitamin B9) is essential for cellular proliferation as it is involved in the biosynthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and s-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). The link between folate depletion and...

    Authors: Gaia Bistulfi, Erika VanDette, Sei-Ichi Matsui and Dominic J Smiraglia
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:6
  23. Dedifferentiation occurs naturally in mature cell types during epimorphic regeneration in fish and some amphibians. Dedifferentiation also occurs in the induction of pluripotent stem cells when a set of transc...

    Authors: Bea Christen, Vanesa Robles, Marina Raya, Ida Paramonov and Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:5
  24. LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neurona...

    Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Claire Larroux, Daniel R Lu, Kareshma Mohanty, Jarrod Chapman, Bernard M Degnan and Daniel S Rokhsar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:4
  25. Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups o...

    Authors: Thomas J Givnish
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:3
  26. The transcription/export complex is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man and is required for coupled transcription elongation and nuclear export of mRNAs. FMIP(Fms interacting protein) is a member of the...

    Authors: Annalisa Mancini, Susanne C Niemann-Seyde, Rüdiger Pankow, Omar El Bounkari, Sabine Klebba-Färber, Alexandra Koch, Ewa Jaworska, Elaine Spooncer, Achim D Gruber, Anthony D Whetton and Teruko Tamura
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:1
  27. Obesity is a chronic low inflammatory state. In the obesity condition the white adipose tissue (WAT) is massively infiltrated with monocytes/macrophages, and the nature of the signals recruiting these inflamma...

    Authors: Margherita Maffei, Marcella Funicello, Teresa Vottari, Olimpia Gamucci, Mario Costa, Simonetta Lisi, Alessandro Viegi, Osele Ciampi, Giuseppe Bardi, Paolo Vitti, Aldo Pinchera and Ferruccio Santini
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:87
  28. Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular...

    Authors: Deanna Dryhurst, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Kristie L Rose, José M Eirín-López, Darin McDonald, Begonia Silva-Moreno, Nik Veldhoen, Caren C Helbing, Michael J Hendzel, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Donald F Hunt and Juan Ausió
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:86
  29. The dystrophin glycoprotein complex is disrupted in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other neuromuscular diseases. The principal heterodimeric partner of dystrophin at the heart of the dystrophin glycoprot...

    Authors: Sabrina V Böhm, Panayiotis Constantinou, Sipin Tan, Hong Jin and Roland G Roberts
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:85
  30. Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent d...

    Authors: Matthew Parks, Richard Cronn and Aaron Liston
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:84
  31. Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand t...

    Authors: Nandini Rao, Deepali Jhamb, Derek J Milner, Bingbing Li, Fengyu Song, Mu Wang, S Randal Voss, Mathew Palakal, Michael W King, Behnaz Saranjami, Holly LD Nye, Jo Ann Cameron and David L Stocum
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:83
  32. The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested...

    Authors: Alexandre Antonelli
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:82
  33. Bacteria-triggered signaling events in infected host cells are key elements in shaping the host response to pathogens. Within the eukaryotic cell, signaling complexes are spatially organized. However, the inve...

    Authors: Alexander Buntru, Timo Zimmermann and Christof R Hauck
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:81
  34. Subjective tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of any physical source. It has been shown that tinnitus is associated with hyperactivity of the auditory cortices. Accompanying this hyperactivit...

    Authors: Winfried Schlee, Nadia Mueller, Thomas Hartmann, Julian Keil, Isabel Lorenz and Nathan Weisz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:80
  35. Early microbial colonization of the gut reduces the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent population studies reveal that childhood hygiene is a significant risk factor for devel...

    Authors: Imke E Mulder, Bettina Schmidt, Christopher R Stokes, Marie Lewis, Mick Bailey, Rustam I Aminov, James I Prosser, Bhupinder P Gill, John R Pluske, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Corran C Musk and Denise Kelly
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:79
  36. Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekee...

    Authors: Talima Pearson, Philip Giffard, Stephen Beckstrom-Sternberg, Raymond Auerbach, Heidie Hornstra, Apichai Tuanyok, Erin P Price, Mindy B Glass, Benjamin Leadem, James S Beckstrom-Sternberg, Gerard J Allan, Jeffrey T Foster, David M Wagner, Richard T Okinaka, Siew Hoon Sim, Ofori Pearson…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:78
  37. Basoapical polarity in epithelia is critical for proper tissue function, and control of proliferation and survival. Cell culture models that recapitulate epithelial tissue architecture are invaluable to unrave...

    Authors: Cedric Plachot, Lesley S Chaboub, Hibret A Adissu, Lei Wang, Albert Urazaev, Jennifer Sturgis, Elikplimi K Asem and Sophie A Lelièvre
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:77
  38. The signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs) to the membrane bound Sec ...

    Authors: Miryana Mircheva, Diana Boy, Benjamin Weiche, Friederike Hucke, Peter Graumann and Hans-Georg Koch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:76
  39. Ubiquitin regulates a myriad of important cellular processes through covalent attachment to its substrates. A classic role for ubiquitin is to flag proteins for destruction by the proteasome. Recent studies in...

    Authors: Chang Liu, Dewald van Dyk, Yue Li, Brenda Andrews and Hai Rao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:75
  40. Given its sequenced genome and efficient systemic RNA interference response, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a model organism well suited for reverse genetics. Even so, there is a pressing need for fo...

    Authors: Jochen Trauner, Johannes Schinko, Marcé D Lorenzen, Teresa D Shippy, Ernst A Wimmer, Richard W Beeman, Martin Klingler, Gregor Bucher and Susan J Brown
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:73
  41. Recent advances in sequencing strategies make possible unprecedented depth and scale of sampling for molecular detection of microbial diversity. Two major paradigm-shifting discoveries include the detection of...

    Authors: Thorsten Stoeck, Anke Behnke, Richard Christen, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Maria J Rodriguez-Mora, Andrei Chistoserdov, William Orsi and Virginia P Edgcomb
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:72
  42. Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically. Some invasive ants take sociality to an extreme, forming geograph...

    Authors: Miriam Brandt, Ellen van Wilgenburg, Robert Sulc, Kenneth J Shea and Neil D Tsutsui
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:71
  43. We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant...

    Authors: Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Heather N Richardson, Katerina Kechris, Richard L Bell, Norbert Hübner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:70