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  1. Monogenic gain-of-function protein aggregation diseases, including Huntington’s disease, exhibit substantial variability in age of onset, penetrance, and clinical symptoms, even between individuals with simila...

    Authors: Tali Gidalevitz, Ning Wang, Tanuja Deravaj, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd and Richard I Morimoto
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:100
  2. Innate immune responses are evolutionarily conserved processes that provide crucial protection against invading organisms. Gene activation by potent NF-κB transcription factors is essential both in mammals and Dr...

    Authors: Widad Dantoft, Monica M Davis, Jessica M Lindvall, Xiongzhuo Tang, Hanna Uvell, Anna Junell, Anne Beskow and Ylva Engström
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:99
  3. Some of the most marked temporal fluctuations in species abundances are linked to seasons. In theory, multispecies assemblages can persist if species use shared resources at different times, thereby minimizing...

    Authors: Hideyasu Shimadzu, Maria Dornelas, Peter A Henderson and Anne E Magurran
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:98
  4. The new field of viral dynamics, based on within-host modeling of viral infections, began with models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but now includes many viral infections. Here we review developments ...

    Authors: Alan S Perelson and Ruy M Ribeiro
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:96
  5. Analyzing and understanding the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes is at the heart of genetics. Research on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been instrumental for unraveling genotype-phenotype r...

    Authors: Rita JM Volkers, L Basten Snoek, Caspara J van Hellenberg Hubar, Renata Coopman, Wei Chen, Wentao Yang, Mark G Sterken, Hinrich Schulenburg, Bart P Braeckman and Jan E Kammenga
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:93
  6. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalax) are hypoxia tolerant (down to 3% O2), long lived (>20 years) rodents showing no clear signs of aging or aging related disorders. In 50 years of Spalax research, spontaneous t...

    Authors: Irena Manov, Mark Hirsh, Theodore C Iancu, Assaf Malik, Nick Sotnichenko, Mark Band, Aaron Avivi and Imad Shams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:91
  7. Most eukaryotic species represent stable karyotypes with a particular diploid number. B chromosomes are additional to standard karyotypes and may vary in size, number and morphology even between cells of the s...

    Authors: Vladimir A Trifonov, Polina V Dementyeva, Denis M Larkin, Patricia CM O’Brien, Polina L Perelman, Fengtang Yang, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith and Alexander S Graphodatsky
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:90
  8. In HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), virus particles assemble primarily on intracellularly sequestered plasma membrane domains termed intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartment...

    Authors: Petra Mlcochova, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews and Mark Marsh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:89
  9. Thiazolidinediones are antidiabetic agents that increase insulin sensitivity but reduce glucose oxidation, state 3 respiration, and activity of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). The mecha...

    Authors: Inmaculada García-Ruiz, Pablo Solís-Muñoz, Daniel Fernández-Moreira, Teresa Muñoz-Yagüe and José A Solís-Herruzo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:88
  10. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, the safety of cell therapy using differentiated hPSC derivatives must be improved through methods tha...

    Authors: Guanghua Yang, Karim Si-Tayeb, Sébastien Corbineau, Rémi Vernet, Régis Gayon, Noushin Dianat, Clémence Martinet, Denis Clay, Sylvie Goulinet-Mainot, Gérard Tachdjian, Gérard Tachdjian, Deborah Burks, Ludovic Vallier, Pascale Bouillé, Anne Dubart-Kupperschmitt and Anne Weber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:86
  11. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are used increasingly in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks and transmission cases involving rapidly evolving RNA viruses. Here, we present the results of such an an...

    Authors: Fernando González-Candelas, María Alma Bracho, Borys Wróbel and Andrés Moya
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:76
  12. Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known ab...

    Authors: Rochele Yamamoto, Hua Bai, Adam G Dolezal, Gro Amdam and Marc Tatar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:85
  13. The role of histone variants and their specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression is still poorly understood. A paper published by Simonet and colleagues in E...

    Authors: Juan Ausió
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:84
  14. Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the swimming of fish toward an oscillating object, a behavior that is likely adaptive because it increases foraging efficiency in darkness. VAB is seen in a small proport...

    Authors: Masato Yoshizawa, Kelly E O’Quin and William R Jeffery
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:82
  15. It is clear that the coordinated and reciprocal actions of kinases and phosphatases are fundamental in the regulation of development and growth of the malaria parasite. Protein Phosphatase type 1 is a key enzy...

    Authors: Aline Fréville, Katia Cailliau-Maggio, Christine Pierrot, Géraldine Tellier, Hadidjatou Kalamou, Sophia Lafitte, Alain Martoriati, Raymond J Pierce, Jean-François Bodart and Jamal Khalife
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:80
  16. NEUROG3 is a key regulator of pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation in mouse, essential for the generation of all mature hormone producing cells. It is repressed by Notch signaling that prevents pancreatic...

    Authors: Lydie C Flasse, Justine L Pirson, David G Stern, Virginie Von Berg, Isabelle Manfroid, Bernard Peers and Marianne L Voz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:78
  17. Two competing theories have been advanced to explain the evolution of multiple cone classes in vertebrate eyes. These two theories have important, but different, implications for our understanding of the desig...

    Authors: Shai Sabbah and Craig W Hawryshyn
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:77
  18. In most modern bony fishes (teleosts) hearing improvement is often correlated with a close morphological relationship between the swim bladder or other gas-filled cavities and the saccule or more rarely with t...

    Authors: Tanja Schulz-Mirbach, Martin Heß, Brian D Metscher and Friedrich Ladich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:75
  19. Nearly all cells have cilia, microtubule based projections from the apical cell surface, and nearly all cells use them in essential and unique ways. How mammalian cilia function in vivo as mechanosensors, signal ...

    Authors: Iain A Drummond
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:74
  20. ParaHox genes, and their evolutionary sisters the Hox genes, are integral to patterning the anterior-posterior axis of most animals. Like the Hox genes, ParaHox genes can be clustered and exhibit the phenomeno...

    Authors: Myles Garstang and David EK Ferrier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:72
  21. Diversity in penile morphology is characterised by extraordinary variation in the size and shape of the baculum (penis bone) found in many mammals. Although functionally enigmatic, diversity in baculum form is...

    Authors: Paula Stockley, Steven A Ramm, Amy L Sherborne, Michael D F Thom, Steve Paterson and Jane L Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:66
  22. The posttranslational modification of target proteins with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins is accomplished by the sequential action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. Members of the E1 and E3 enzyme families can...

    Authors: Sonja Lorenz, Aaron J Cantor, Michael Rape and John Kuriyan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:65
  23. Authors: Roman H Khonsari, Maisa Seppala, Alan Pradel, Hugo Dutel, Gaël Clément, Oleg Lebedev, Sarah Ghafoor, Michaela Rothova, Abigael Tucker, John G Maisey, Chen-Ming Fan, Atsushi Ohazama, Paul Tafforeau, Brunella Franco, Jill Helms, Courtney J Haycraft…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:70

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2013 11:27

  24. In mammals, ABCB1 constitutes a cellular “first line of defense” against a wide array of chemicals and drugs conferring cellular multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). We tested the hypothesis that...

    Authors: Stephan Fischer, Nils Klüver, Kathleen Burkhardt-Medicke, Mirko Pietsch, Anne-Marie Schmidt, Peggy Wellner, Kristin Schirmer and Till Luckenbach
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:69
  25. The carbon metabolism of the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, comprising rapidly dividing asexual stages and non-dividing gametocytes, is thought to be highly streamlined, with glycolysis providing most of ...

    Authors: James I MacRae, Matthew WA Dixon, Megan K Dearnley, Hwa H Chua, Jennifer M Chambers, Shannon Kenny, Iveta Bottova, Leann Tilley and Malcolm J McConville
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:67
  26. Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to be the largest transcript class in the mouse and human transcriptomes. Two important questions are whether all lncRNAs are functional and how they could e...

    Authors: Aleksandra E Kornienko, Philipp M Guenzl, Denise P Barlow and Florian M Pauler
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:59
  27. Different non-invasive real-time imaging techniques have been developed over the last decades to study bacterial pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models by following infections over a time course. In vivo investiga...

    Authors: Verena Hoerr, Lorena Tuchscherr, Jana Hüve, Nadine Nippe, Karin Loser, Nataliya Glyvuk, Yaroslav Tsytsyura, Michael Holtkamp, Cord Sunderkötter, Uwe Karst, Jürgen Klingauf, Georg Peters, Bettina Löffler and Cornelius Faber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:63
  28. One of the key genes that regulate human brain size, MCPH1 has evolved under strong Darwinian positive selection during the evolution of primates. During this evolution, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences ...

    Authors: Lei Shi, Ming Li, Qiang Lin, Xuebin Qi and Bing Su
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:62
  29. The intestinal mucus layer plays a key role in the maintenance of host-microbiota homeostasis. To document the crosstalk between the host and microbiota, we used gnotobiotic models to study the influence of tw...

    Authors: Laura Wrzosek, Sylvie Miquel, Marie-Louise Noordine, Stephan Bouet, Marie Joncquel Chevalier-Curt, Véronique Robert, Catherine Philippe, Chantal Bridonneau, Claire Cherbuy, Catherine Robbe-Masselot, Philippe Langella and Muriel Thomas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:61
  30. Pluripotency is a fundamental property of early mammalian development but it is currently unclear to what extent its cellular mechanisms are conserved in vertebrates or metazoans. POU5F1 and POU2 are the two p...

    Authors: Stephen Frankenberg and Marilyn B Renfree
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:56
  31. Mosquitoes respond to infection by mounting immune responses. The primary regulators of these immune responses are cells called hemocytes, which kill pathogens via phagocytosis and via the production of solubl...

    Authors: Jonas G King and Julián F Hillyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:55
  32. The vertebrate nervous system is deeply divided into ‘somatic’ and ‘visceral’ subsystems that respond to external and internal stimuli, respectively. Molecular characterization of neurons in different groups o...

    Authors: Paola Bertucci and Detlev Arendt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:54
  33. A key to understanding the evolution of the nervous system on a large phylogenetic scale is the identification of homologous neuronal types. Here, we focus this search on the sensory and motor neurons of bilat...

    Authors: Marc Nomaksteinsky, Stefan Kassabov, Zoubida Chettouh, Henri-Corto Stoeklé, Laure Bonnaud, Gilles Fortin, Eric R Kandel and Jean-François Brunet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:53
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