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  1. Content type: Research article

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants vary greatly in size, gene content, gene order, mutation rate and level of RNA editing. However, the narrow phylogenetic breadth of available genomic data has limi...

    Authors: Aaron O Richardson, Danny W Rice, Gregory J Young, Andrew J Alverson and Jeffrey D Palmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:29

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  2. Content type: Review

    First discovered in Drosophila, the Hedgehog signaling pathway controls a wide range of developmental processes and is implicated in a variety of cancers. The success of a screen for chemical modulators of this p...

    Authors: Tom J Carney and Philip W Ingham

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:37

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  3. Content type: Commentary

    The huge variation between mitochondrial genomes makes untangling their evolutionary histories difficult. Richardson et al. report on the remarkably unaltered ‘fossil’ genome of the tulip tree, giving us many clu...

    Authors: Ian Small

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:30

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  4. Content type: Commentary

    In theory, the human genome is large enough to keep its roughly 20,000 genes well separated. In practice, genes are clustered; even more puzzling, in many cases both DNA strands of a protein coding gene are tr...

    Authors: Andreas Werner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:31

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The pituitary gland is formed by the juxtaposition of two tissues: neuroectoderm arising from the basal diencephalon, and oral epithelium, which invaginates towards the central nervous system from the roof of ...

    Authors: Roman H Khonsari, Maisa Seppala, Alan Pradel, Hugo Dutel, Gaël Clément, Oleg Lebedev, Sarah Ghafoor, Michaela Rothova, Abigael Tucker, John G Maisey, Chen-Ming Fan, Maiko Kawasaki, Atsushi Ohazama, Paul Tafforeau, Brunella Franco, Jill Helms…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:27

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2013 11:70

  6. Content type: Research article

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production (thermogenesis) during cold acclimation in mammals. It is unknown whether the regulat...

    Authors: Alexander G Little, Tatsuya Kunisue, Kurunthachalam Kannan and Frank Seebacher

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:26

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The directional migration and the following development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during gonad formation are key steps for germline development. It has been proposed that the interaction between germ cel...

    Authors: Su-Ren Chen, Qiao-Song Zheng, Yang Zhang, Fei Gao and Yi-Xun Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:22

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Although intron loss in evolution has been described, the mechanism involved is still unclear. Three models have been proposed, the reverse transcriptase (RT) model, genomic deletion model and double-strand-br...

    Authors: Tao Zhu and Deng-Ke Niu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:23

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Vertebrate predators use a broad arsenal of behaviors and weaponry for overcoming fractious and potentially dangerous prey. A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical mo...

    Authors: Anthony J Saviola, David Chiszar, Chardelle Busch and Stephen P Mackessy

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:20

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-κB) pathway is conserved from fruit flies to humans and is a key mediator of inflammatory signaling. Aberrant regulation of NF-κB is associated with several disorders including au...

    Authors: Anthony O Olarerin-George, Lauren Anton, Yih-Chii Hwang, Michal A Elovitz and John B Hogenesch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:19

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Methanobactins (Mbns) are a family of copper-binding natural products involved in copper uptake by methanotrophic bacteria. The few Mbns that have been structurally characterized feature copper coordination by...

    Authors: Grace E Kenney and Amy C Rosenzweig

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:17

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  12. Content type: Research article

    A number of studies have established that stochasticity in gene expression may play an important role in many biological phenomena. This therefore calls for further investigations to identify the molecular mec...

    Authors: José Viñuelas, Gaël Kaneko, Antoine Coulon, Elodie Vallin, Valérie Morin, Camila Mejia-Pous, Jean-Jacques Kupiec, Guillaume Beslon and Olivier Gandrillon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:15

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  13. Content type: Commentary

    Mutations causing antibiotic resistance are often associated with a cost in the absence of antibiotics. Surprisingly, a new study found that bacteria adapting to increased temperature became resistant to rifam...

    Authors: Martijn F Schenk and J Arjan GM de Visser

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:14

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Skeletal muscle undergoes rapid atrophy upon denervation and the underlying mechanisms are complicated. FOXO3a has been implicated as a major mediator of muscle atrophy, but how its subcellular location and ac...

    Authors: Bin Wei, Wen Dui, Dong Liu, Yan Xing, Zengqiang Yuan and Guangju Ji

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:12

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  15. Content type: Methodology article

    Drosophila melanogaster has served as a powerful model system for genetic studies of courtship songs. To accelerate research on the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying courtship song, we have developed a sen...

    Authors: Benjamin J Arthur, Tomoko Sunayama-Morita, Philip Coen, Mala Murthy and David L Stern

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:11

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  16. Content type: Commentary

    In caves one repeatedly finds strikingly convergent patterns of evolution in diverse sets of organisms involving 'regressive' traits such as the loss of eyes and pigmentation. Ongoing debate centers around whe...

    Authors: Helen Gunter and Axel Meyer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:5

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Significant effects of recent global climate change have already been observed in a variety of ecosystems, with evidence for shifts in species ranges, but rarely have such consequences been related to the chan...

    Authors: Katy R Nicastro, Gerardo I Zardi, Sara Teixeira, João Neiva, Ester A Serrão and Gareth A Pearson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:6

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  18. Content type: Methodology article

    DNA methylation serves as an important epigenetic mark in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In eukaryotes, the most common epigenetic mark is 5-methylcytosine, whereas prokaryotes can have 6-methylade...

    Authors: Tyson A Clark, Xingyu Lu, Khai Luong, Qing Dai, Matthew Boitano, Stephen W Turner, Chuan He and Jonas Korlach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:4

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying ...

    Authors: Daniel N Düring, Alexander Ziegler, Christopher K Thompson, Andreas Ziegler, Cornelius Faber, Johannes Müller, Constance Scharff and Coen PH Elemans

    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:1

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  20. Content type: Research article

    How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been...

    Authors: Masato Yoshizawa, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Kelly E O'Quin and William R Jeffery

    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:108

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the cteno...

    Authors: Christine E Schnitzler, Kevin Pang, Meghan L Powers, Adam M Reitzel, Joseph F Ryan, David Simmons, Takashi Tada, Morgan Park, Jyoti Gupta, Shelise Y Brooks, Robert W Blakesley, Shozo Yokoyama, Steven HD Haddock, Mark Q Martindale and Andreas D Baxevanis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:107

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