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  1. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) is a fundamental tool for studying the spatio-temporal expression pattern of RNA molecules in intact embryos and tissues. The available methodologies for detecting mRNAs i...

    Authors: Theresa Gross-Thebing, Azadeh Paksa and Erez Raz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:55
  2. Archaea share a similar microbial lifestyle with bacteria, and not surprisingly then, also exist within matrix-enclosed communities known as biofilms. Advances in biofilm biology have been made over decades fo...

    Authors: Scott Chimileski, Michael J Franklin and R Thane Papke
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:65
  3. Phase 2 detoxification enzymes provide a vital defence against reactive oxygen species, including xenobiotic metabolites, which cause the oxidative damage involved in drug toxicity and many diseases. Hence, th...

    Authors: Helen M Crook-McMahon, Monika Oláhová, Emma L Button, Johnathan J Winter and Elizabeth A Veal
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:64
  4. Multiple growth factors are known to control several aspects of neuronal biology, consecutively acting as morphogens to diversify neuronal fates, as guidance cues for axonal growth, and as modulators of surviv...

    Authors: Nathalie Caruso, Balazs Herberth, Fabienne Lamballe, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Flavio Maina and Françoise Helmbacher
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:56
  5. The formation of the primitive streak is the first visible sign of gastrulation, the process by which the three germ layers are formed from a single epithelium during early development. Embryonic stem cells (E...

    Authors: David A Turner, Pau Rué, Jonathan P Mackenzie, Eleanor Davies and Alfonso Martinez Arias
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:63
  6. The research field of connectomics arose just recently with the development of new three-dimensional-electron microscopy (EM) techniques and increasing computing power. So far, only a few model species (for ex...

    Authors: Tobias Lehmann, Martin Heß, Gerhard Wanner and Roland R Melzer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:59
  7. The quality of complex communication signals, such as birdsong, is difficult to assess and compare across individuals or species. A new study on skylark song avoids the problem of signal complexity by assessin...

    Authors: Gonçalo C Cardoso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:62
  8. The rod is a ubiquitous shape adopted by walled cells from diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to fungi to plants. Although rod-like shapes are found in cells of vastly different sizes and are constructed ...

    Authors: Fred Chang and Kerwyn Casey Huang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:54
  9. Pneumococcal β-lactam resistance was first detected in Iceland in the late 1980s, and subsequently peaked at almost 25% of clinical isolates in the mid-1990s largely due to the spread of the internationally-di...

    Authors: Nicholas J Croucher, William P Hanage, Simon R Harris, Lesley McGee, Mark van der Linden, Herminia de Lencastre, Raquel Sá-Leão, Jae-Hoon Song, Kwan Soo Ko, Bernard Beall, Keith P Klugman, Julian Parkhill, Alexander Tomasz, Karl G Kristinsson and Stephen D Bentley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:49
  10. Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying...

    Authors: Pilar Téllez-Rodríguez, Ben Raymond, Ivis Morán-Bertot, Lianet Rodríguez-Cabrera, Denis J Wright, Carlos G Borroto and Camilo Ayra-Pardo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:48
  11. In the adult central nervous system, axonal regeneration is abortive. Regulators of microtubule dynamics have emerged as attractive targets to promote axonal growth following injury as microtubule organization...

    Authors: Márcia A Liz, Fernando M Mar, Telma E Santos, Helena I Pimentel, Ana M Marques, Marlene M Morgado, Sílvia Vieira, Vera F Sousa, Hayley Pemble, Torsten Wittmann, Calum Sutherland, James R Woodgett and Mónica M Sousa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:47
  12. Relatively recent evidence indicates that ABCC2 transporters play a main role in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A-type proteins. Mapping of major Cry1A resistance genes has linked resistanc...

    Authors: Youngjin Park, Rosa M González-Martínez, Gloria Navarro-Cerrillo, Maissa Chakroun, Yonggyun Kim, Pello Ziarsolo, Jose Blanca, Joaquin Cañizares, Juan Ferré and Salvador Herrero
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:46
  13. Wnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling molecules that regulate key developmental processes in metazoans. The molecular basis of Wnt binding to Frizzled and LRP5/6 co-receptors has long been unknown du...

    Authors: Sumit Kumar, Mihaela Žigman, Trushar R Patel, Benjamin Trageser, Julia Christina Gross, Karolin Rahm, Michael Boutros, Dietmar Gradl, Herbert Steinbeisser, Thomas Holstein, Jörg Stetefeld and Suat Özbek
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:44
  14. BMP-induced chemotaxis of mesenchymal progenitors is fundamental for vertebrate development, disease and tissue repair. BMP2 induces Smad and non-Smad signalling. Whereas signal transduction via Smads lead to ...

    Authors: Christian Hiepen, Andreas Benn, Agnieszka Denkis, Ilya Lukonin, Christoph Weise, Jan H Boergermann and Petra Knaus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:43
  15. The use of low quality RNA samples in whole-genome gene expression profiling remains controversial. It is unclear if transcript degradation in low quality RNA samples occurs uniformly, in which case the effect...

    Authors: Irene Gallego Romero, Athma A Pai, Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:42
  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are pathogenic to animals and humans, in which they are both a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and a re-emerging cause of severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae ...

    Authors: Letícia MS Lery, Lionel Frangeul, Anna Tomas, Virginie Passet, Ana S Almeida, Suzanne Bialek-Davenet, Valérie Barbe, José A Bengoechea, Philippe Sansonetti, Sylvain Brisse and Régis Tournebize
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:41
  17. Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons i...

    Authors: Hiroshi Yajima, Makoto Suzuki, Haruki Ochi, Keiko Ikeda, Shigeru Sato, Ken-ichi Yamamura, Hajime Ogino, Naoto Ueno and Kiyoshi Kawakami
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:40
  18. FAF1 is a ubiquitin-binding adaptor for the p97 ATPase and belongs to the UBA-UBX family of p97 cofactors. p97 converts the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into conformational changes of the p97 hexamer, wh...

    Authors: Yorann Baron, Patrick G Pedrioli, Kshitiz Tyagi, Clare Johnson, Nicola T Wood, Daniel Fountaine, Melanie Wightman and Gabriela Alexandru
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:39
  19. In a majority of cell types, mitochondria form highly dynamic, tubular networks. Maintaining the shape of this complex network is critical for both mitochondrial and cellular function and involves the activiti...

    Authors: Laura L Lackner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:35
  20. Almost 20 years ago, the discovery that mitochondrial release of cytochrome c initiates a cascade that leads to cell death brought about a wholesale change in how cell biologists think of mitochondria. Formerl...

    Authors: Navdeep S Chandel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:34
  21. Diverse transposable elements are abundant in genomes of cellular organisms from all three domains of life. Although transposons are often regarded as junk DNA, a growing body of evidence indicates that they a...

    Authors: Mart Krupovic, Kira S Makarova, Patrick Forterre, David Prangishvili and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:36
  22. CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable α and β loo...

    Authors: Catherine Reynolds, Deborah Chong, Eleanor Raynsford, Kathryn Quigley, Deborah Kelly, Julia Llewellyn-Hughes, Daniel Altmann and Rosemary Boyton
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:32
  23. Optimal reproductive fitness is essential for the biological success and survival of species. The vomeronasal organ is strongly implicated in the display of sexual and reproductive behaviors in female mice, ye...

    Authors: Livio Oboti, Anabel Pérez-Gómez, Matthieu Keller, Eric Jacobi, Lutz Birnbaumer, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall and Pablo Chamero
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:31
  24. One of the promises in regenerative medicine is to regenerate or replace damaged tissues. The embryonic chick can regenerate its retina by transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and by ...

    Authors: Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Erika Grajales-Esquivel, Alexander McCorkle, Ashley M DiLorenzo, Karla Barbosa-Sabanero, Panagiotis A Tsonis and Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:28
  25. An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposa...

    Authors: Vladimir A Timoshevskiy, Nicholas A Kinney, Becky S deBruyn, Chunhong Mao, Zhijian Tu, David W Severson, Igor V Sharakhov and Maria V Sharakhova
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:27
  26. Abnormalities in pyloric development or in contractile function of the pylorus cause reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach and increase the risk of gastric metaplasia and cancer. Abnormalities of the py...

    Authors: Yushan Li, Jirong Pan, Chao Wei, Juan Chen, Ying Liu, Jiali Liu, Xiaoxin Zhang, Sylvia M Evans, Yan Cui and Sheng Cui
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:25
  27. Wound healing is the first stage of a series of cellular events that are necessary to initiate a regenerative response. Defective wound healing can block regeneration even in animals with a high regenerative c...

    Authors: Timothy Q DuBuc, Nikki Traylor-Knowles and Mark Q Martindale
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:24
  28. Directed cell migration is essential for normal development. In most of the migratory cell populations that have been analyzed in detail to date, all of the cells migrate as a collective from one location to a...

    Authors: Heather M Young, Annette J Bergner, Matthew J Simpson, Sonja J McKeown, Marlene M Hao, Colin R Anderson and Hideki Enomoto
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:23
  29. The high-mobility-group (HMG) proteins are the most abundant non-histone chromatin-associated proteins. HMG proteins are present at high levels in various undifferentiated tissues during embryonic development ...

    Authors: Indrabahadur Singh, Aditi Mehta, Adriana Contreras, Thomas Boettger, Gianni Carraro, Matthew Wheeler, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Saverio Bellusci, Werner Seeger, Thomas Braun and Guillermo Barreto
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:21
  30. Soluble growth factors present in the microenvironment play a major role in tumor development, invasion, metastasis, and responsiveness to targeted therapies. While the biochemistry of growth factor-dependent ...

    Authors: Mario Niepel, Marc Hafner, Emily A Pace, Mirra Chung, Diana H Chai, Lili Zhou, Jeremy L Muhlich, Birgit Schoeberl and Peter K Sorger
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:20
  31. Many organisms coordinate cell growth and division through size control mechanisms: cells must reach a critical size to trigger a cell cycle event. Bacterial division is often assumed to be controlled in this ...

    Authors: Lydia Robert, Marc Hoffmann, Nathalie Krell, Stéphane Aymerich, Jérôme Robert and Marie Doumic
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:17
  32. In mammals, the slow-oscillations of neuronal membrane potentials (reflected in the electroencephalogram as high-amplitude, slow-waves), which occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and anesthesia, propagat...

    Authors: Gabriël JL Beckers, Jacqueline van der Meij, John A Lesku and Niels C Rattenborg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:16
  33. Although technical advances in genomics and proteomics research have yielded a better understanding of the coding capacity of a genome, one major challenge remaining is the identification of all expressed prot...

    Authors: Megan Ericson, Michael A Janes, Falk Butter, Matthias Mann, Elisabetta Ullu and Christian Tschudi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:14
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